General

The most prominent legal specialties

It should first be noted that the majority of lawyers are generalists and that the specialty is currently known more as a complement in a given field of law, in addition to the basic generalist training that every lawyer must have, than as an activity exclusive to any other.

Nevertheless, the decree of November 27, 1991, provided that the list of specializations would be determined by order of the Minister of Justice, on the proposal of the National Council of Bars and Law Societies (Conseil National des Barreaux), which thus established a list of fifteen specializations. In order to obtain these specialties, lawyers are required to pass a knowledge test.

Law of persons
This is a specialty of civil law that studies people as subjects of law. Indeed, people enjoy particular rights that are attached to their own person. These rights include the right to a name, to a domicile, to an image, to the protection of privacy, etc., as well as all the legal rules that govern legal majority and incapacity.

Here are the areas concerned by this specialty:

Family law
Law of foreigners in France
Inheritance and donation law
Law of patrimony
Overindebtedness law
Civil liability law
Insurance for individuals
Law of minors
Compensation for personal injury
Criminal Law
Criminal law is the branch of law that determines what constitutes anti-social behavior and what society’s response to it is.

The following areas are covered by this specialty:

General Criminal Law
Business criminal law
Press law
Real Estate Law
Real estate law is the generic term which groups together all the legal texts of public and private law concerning real estate.

Here are the fields concerned by this specialty:

Construction
Urban planning
Co-ownership
Residential leases
Commercial and professional leases
Expropriation
Mining law
Rural law
This is the set of rules governing agricultural property.

Here are the fields concerned by this specialty:

Rural leases and agricultural enterprises
Food products law
Agricultural cooperation law
Environmental law
Environmental law covers the legal rules concerning the understanding, protection, use, management and repression of environmental damage (particularly pollution) as well as the compensation of victims who have suffered environmental damage.

Public Law
Public law is the set of legal rules that govern :

Political, administrative and financial functioning of legal entities and public law between them
Relations between States, between international organizations
Relations between legal entities of public law and private persons
Here are the fields concerned by this specialization:

Constitutional law
Administrative law
Tax law
Electoral law
Local government
Civil service law
Public economic law
Public international law
Intellectual property law
Intellectual property law governs the exclusive rights of a creator with respect to his work, of intellectual creation. It is divided into two branches:

literary and artistic property
the industrial property
Here are the fields concerned by this specialty:

Patent law
Trademark law
Design and model law
Literary and artistic property
Computer and telecommunications law
Commercial law
Commercial law defines the rules of the commercial profession and the law applicable to commercial acts.

Here are the fields concerned by this speciality:

Banking and finance law
Collective procedures and companies in difficulty
Sales of businesses
Stock exchange law
Air transport
Maritime transport
Land transport
Advertising law
Company law
Company law can be considered as the set of rules that apply to legal entities, companies, whether they are civil or commercial in nature.

Here are the fields concerned by this specialty:

Commercial and professional company law
Mergers and acquisitions
Law of associations and foundations
Tax law
Tax law is defined as all the legal rules relating to taxes, duties and social security contributions.

Here are the fields concerned by this specialty:

Personal taxation
Taxation of professional activities
International taxation
Taxation of assets
VALUE ADDED TAX
Real estate taxation
Employment law
The term employment law covers all the rules governing individual and collective relations.
Here are the fields concerned by this specialization:

Labor law
Social security and mutual insurance law
Social protection law
Economic law
Economic law is the set of rules that apply to institutions dealing with the world economy.

Here are the fields concerned by this specialization:

Law of professional regulations
Competition law
Consumer law
Distribution law
Law of enforcement measures
The law of enforcement measures is the set of rules that can act on the delay, the acceleration of judicial enforcement measures during a judgment.

Here are the fields concerned by this speciality:

Forced enforcement measures
Conservatory measures
Community law
Community law is defined as the set of rules valid for all the member countries of the European Union.

Here are the fields concerned by this speciality:

European and Community public law
Litigation before the European courts
European competition law
International relations law
International Law
International law concerns all the legal rules governing relations between States or between private individuals in an international context. It can be of a private or public nature.

Here are the fields concerned by this specialty:

There are as many fields of competence as there are independent states.

International litigation
International contracts

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